Here's a list of some basic Ramen terms you'll see on menus and such.
Chashu - Roasted Pork usually used as a topping for Ramen.
Futomen - Thick noodles. Popular in Sapporo.
Gu - Toppings of ramen. Can range from Bamboo shoots to pork to even butter and corn.
Hosomen - Thin Noodles
Junsumikei - Junren/Sumire Style Miso ramen. Rich, thick, lard film on top, curly bright yellow noodles.
Miso - A fundimental ingredient in Japanese cooking consiting of fermented soy and rice. Extremely healthy and part of Sapporo ramen culture.
Shio - Salt, basic flavor for ramen
Shoyu - Soy Sauce, a bit more depth than Shio, basic flavor for ramen
Tare - A Rich base that broth is added to in Ramen. Usually the secret ingredient.
Tonkotsu - Pork bone, usually used as a base for soup.